Risk at the Winter Olympics

Risk at the Winter Olympics

In successive Olympic Games some of the courses and events are becoming faster, more difficult and therefore more dangerous. The margin of error allowed by a competitor becomes smaller and smaller and big adjustments are required by these elite athletes to accommodate these course changes.

Where should the line be drawn on Olympic event safety?

Olympic Sponsorship and Broadcast Rights

The Olympic Games are spectator sports worth billions of dollars in revenue. In Canada, the cost of buying the broadcast rights for the 2010 Games hit a record-breaking $90 million for Vancouver, up from $28 million in Turin in 2006 and from $12 million for the Lillehammer Games in 1994.

According to an article on the Toronto Star’s website, TheStar.com, Jim Little, chief brand and communications officer of the The Royal Bank of Canada, which paid $110 million for the rights to the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and London 2012 Games, says it’s well worth it. “It’s the biggest marketing platform in the world”.

It is no secret that tragedy, danger and spectacular accidents generate keen media interest.

When it comes to extreme sports such as high altitude mountaineering the accidents and disasters regularly receive more coverage than successes.

In an article titled “Women’s Olympic downhill course takes a bite out of competition”, Jim Morris, reporting for the online edition of the Canadian Press on the 17.02.2010, said of the spectacular crashes in the women’s downhill event in Whistler, “It was ugly but riveting to watch”.

Olympic Luge Tragedy

A few hours before the Olympic Games opening ceremony, Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili died in a horrific crash, flying off the luge course at 145 km/h during a training run and colliding with an un-padded steel pole. The international federation that governs luge racing claimed that the track was safe. The accident was deemed to be the fault of the inexperienced competitor who failed to control his sled.

During training runs at the Whistler Sliding Centre where the tragedy took place athletes were attaining unprecedented speeds on the luge track. Designed for speeds of 137 km/h (85 miles/h), the track was delivering speeds above 150 km/h, 9 miles/h faster than the standing 2000 world speed record.

According to an article: “Speed and Commerce Skewed Track’s Design” in the Wall Street Journal online edition, the first choice of Grouse Mountain for the sliding centre was abandoned because Whistler would be a more financially viable location after the Games. As a result, the track designers had to fit the track into a narrower valley, which meant a steeper slope and tighter turns.

While absolving themselves of blame for the accident the luge federation fixed the corner where the accident took place by replacing it with a wall and lowered the start gate of the course to slow the sleds.

Women’s Olympic Downhill Run

In an accident reminiscent of Austrian downhiller Hermann Maier’s hair-raising crash in the 1998 Nagano Games, Swedish alpine star, Anje Paerson was fortunate to escape severe injury after a spectacular crash during the women’s Olympic downhill run on the almost 3 km Franz’s course. Paerson flew 60 metres before crashing into the piste.

Due to warm weather that initially postponed the event, the women only had one warm-up run on the downhill course (instead of the standard two runs). The warm-up run they had was in two sections, squeezed between men’s events. Trying to hold another training would have delayed the women’s downhill. That would have meant rescheduling television times and putting more pressure on a schedule already upset by bad weather.

German competitor Maria Riesch, a downhill veteran and pre-race favourite, declared the course the most difficult that she has ever skied. As reported to the Canadian Press, digital version on the 17.02.2010 Riesch said, “When I was down in the finish I thought I was going to die.” Though a pre-race favourite Reisch finished eighth. “My legs were dead. It was so tiring.”

According to Reuters USA online edition, Canadian competitor Emily Brydon said, “The reason for the carnage is that it’s a long run for the women and you’re exhausted when you reach the bottom, which makes those last jumps really tricky,” she added.

The women’s race director, Atle Skaardal said later that the course, where women were reaching speeds of just under 110 km/h, will be changed for safety reasons. “We will try to ease things down a little bit,” Skaardal said.

Similarly to the reaction to the tragedy in the luge event, a lower start position will be used.

Olympic Athletes Compete on the Edge

In speed events which may well be considered extreme sports, Olympic athletes are often competing on the edge of their ability and the limit of control since the difference between a medal or indeed the top ten placements is often a matter of hundredths of a second. Serious crashes, career -threatening injuries are not surprise occurrences at the Olympics. Elite athletes compete at speeds regularly in excess of 100 km/h when a single mistake can be very costly in terms of their performance and their safety. The winner of the gold medal is often arguably the competitor who reaches the brink of disaster without toppling over the edge.

Slots: Money management

Slots: Money management

Money management is an important feature of effective gambling. When you come to the casino to try your luck at slots, you should come with a plan. Even if you are not lucky on that particular day, your plan should help get the maximum amount of play possible and keep losses to a manageable level.

Basic Slots Money Management

KNOWING YOUR BANKROLL NEEDS IN SLOTS

The first step in slots money management is understanding how much money you need in your bankroll for an enjoyable slots experience. Slot machines have varying payback rates, usually ranging from 75 percent at the low end to 99 percent at the high.

Clearly, you want as high a payback as possible and the average payback is around 90 percent. This means you can expect to lose ten cents for every dollar you put in a slot machine, or ten dollars for every hundred dollars you wager. This is not an exact account — it is simply what you can expect over time.

CALCULATING YOUR BANKROLL IN SLOTS

You now need to figure out how much you wager in an hour. If you wager an average of $100 an hour, a bankroll of $200 should keep you in play for five or ten hours, even if you should hit a streak of bad luck. If you wager $2,000 an hour, you will need considerably more.

NOTES ON SLOT MONEY MANAGEMENT

It isn’t necessary to expect to lose the entire portion of your slots bankroll. In fact, hopefully you will win. However, the goal is to provide yourself with enough money to keep you entertained and playing until you have the opportunity to replenish that bankroll.

Rules of Draw Poker Games

Rules of Draw Poker Games

There are two betting rounds, one before the draw and one after the draw. The game is played with a button and an ante. Players in turn may check, open for the minimum, or open with a raise. After the first betting round the players have the opportunity to draw new cards to replace the ones they discard. Action after the draw starts with the opener, or next player proceeding clockwise if the opener has folded. The betting limit after the draw is twice the amount of the betting limit before the draw. Some draw high games allow a player to open on anything; others require the opener to have a pair of jacks or better.

Rules for Draw High
1. A maximum of a bet and four raises is permitted in multi-handed pots. [See Section 16 – Explanations, discussion #6, for more information on this rule.]
2. Check-raise is permitted both before and after the draw.
3. Any card that is exposed by the dealer before the draw must be kept.
4. Five cards constitute a playing hand. Less than five cards for a player (other than the button) before action has been taken is a misdeal. If action has been taken, a player with fewer than five cards may draw the number of cards necessary to complete a five-card hand. The button may receive the fifth card even if action has taken place. More or fewer than five cards after the draw constitutes a fouled hand.

5. A player may draw up to four consecutive cards. If a player wishes to draw five new cards, four are dealt right away, and the fifth card after everyone else has drawn. If the last player wishes to draw five new cards, four are dealt right away, and a card is burned before the player receives a fifth card. [See “Section 16 – Explanations,” discussion #9, for more information about this rule.]
6. You may change the number of cards you wish to draw, provided:
(a) No cards have been dealt off the deck in response to your request (including the burn card).
(b) No player has acted, in either the betting or indicating the number of cards to be drawn, based on the number of cards you have requested.
7. If you are asked how many cards you drew by another active player, you are obligated to respond until there has been action after the draw, and the dealer is also obligated to respond. Once there is any action after the draw, you are no longer obliged to respond and the dealer cannot respond.
8. On the draw, an exposed card cannot be taken. The draw is completed to each player in order, and then the exposed card is replaced.
9. Rapping the table in turn constitutes either a pass or the declaration of a pat hand that does not want to draw any cards, depending on the situation. A player who indicates a pat hand by rapping the table, not knowing the pot has been raised, may still play his or her hand.
10. You may not change your seat between hands when there are multiple antes or forfeited money in the pot.
11. You have the right to pay the ante (whether single or multiple) at any time and receive a hand, unless there is any additional money in the pot that has been forfeited during a hand in which you were not involved.
12. If the pot has been declared open by an all-in player playing for just the antes, all callers must come in for the full opening bet.
13. If you have only a full ante and no other chips on the table, you may play for just the antes. If no one opens and there is another ante, you may still play for that part of the antes that you have matched, without putting in any more money.

Jacks-or-Better
1. A pair of jacks or better is required to open the pot. If no player opens the pot, the button moves forward and each player must ante again, unless the limit of antes has been reached for that particular game. (Most games allow three consecutive deals before anteing stops.)
2. If the opener should show false openers before the draw, any other active player has the opportunity to declare the pot opened. However, any player who originally passed openers is not eligible to declare the pot open. The false opener has a dead hand and the opening bet stays in the pot. Any other bet placed in the pot by the opener may be withdrawn, provided the action before the draw is not completed. If no other player declares the pot open, all bets are returned except the opener’s first bet. The first bet and antes will remain in the pot, and all players who were involved in that hand are entitled to play the next hand after anteing again.
3. Any player who has legally declared the pot opened must prove openers in order to win the pot.
4. In all cases, the pot will play (even if the opener shows or declares a fouled hand) if there has been a raise, two or more players call the opening bet, or all action is completed before the draw.
5. Even if you are all in for just the ante (or part of the ante), you may declare the pot open if you have openers. If you are all in and falsely declare the pot open, you will lose the ante money and may not continue to play on any subsequent deals until a winner is determined. Even if you buy in again, you must wait until the pot has been legally opened and someone else has won it before you can resume playing.
6. Once action has been completed before the draw, the opener may not withdraw any bets, whether or not the hand contains openers.
7. An opener may be allowed to retrieve a discarded hand to prove openers, at management’s discretion.
8. Any player may request that the opener retain the opening hand and show it after the winner of the pot has been determined.
9. You may split openers, but you must declare that you are splitting and place all discards under a chip to be exposed by the dealer after the completion of the hand.
If you declare that you are splitting openers, but it is determined that you could not possibly have had openers when your final hand is compared with your discards, you will lose the pot.
10. You are not splitting openers if you retain openers. If you begin with the ace, joker, king, queen of spades, and the ten of clubs, you are not splitting if you throw the ten of clubs away. You are breaking a straight to draw to a royal flush, and in doing so, you have retained openers (ace-joker for two aces).
11. After the draw, if you call the opener’s bet and cannot beat openers, you will not get your bet back. (You have received information about opener’s hand that is not free.)

The Joker
1. The players will be alerted as to whether the joker is in use.
2. The joker may be used only as an ace, or to complete a straight, flush, or straight flush. (Thus it is not a completely wild card.)
3. If a joker is used to make a flush, it will be the highest card of the flush not present in the hand.
4. Five aces is the best possible hand (four aces and joker).

Blackjack Basic Strategy

Blackjack Basic Strategy

Blackjack basic strategy is the most basic system that all blackjack players must master in order to become a successful player. Basic strategy is a mathematical system of charts that show you the correct mathematical play in any blackjack scenario. You need to learn these basic strategy charts inside and out to know every proper play. This is the fundamental system that blackjack strategy is based upon. By correctly using blackjack basic strategy, you can almost turn the casino’s house advantage of 7%-8% into 1%.

The system of blackjack basic strategy has been developed over several years of research and computer simulation to perfect the basic strategy charts. There are a wide variety of charts that change with slight varations, depending on the exact type of blackjack you will be playing. The two most common basic strategy charts are the single deck and multiple deck charts.

  • Single Deck Blackjack Strategy Charts
  • Multiple Deck Blackjack Strategy Charts

Using Basic Strategy

Using blackjack basic strategy isn’t complicated if you know how to read and understand basic strategy charts. The left vertical column of the charts is your hand and the top horizontal column is the dealer’s hand. Simply line up the columns where your hand meets the dealer’s hand to find the correct play. The abbreviations below are commonly found on basic strategy charts:

  • H – Hit
  • S – Stand
  • D – Double if allowed, otherwise hit
  • Ds – Double if allowed, otherwise stand
  • P – Split
  • H/P – Split if you can double after split, otherwise hit
  • H/R – Surrender if allowed, otherwise hit
  • P/R – Surrender if allowed, otherwise split
  • S/R – Surrender if allowed, otherwise stand

Memorizing Basic Strategy

You’ll need to memorize the basic strategy charts inside and out so you can make your decision (the proper play) in a split second while sitting at a blackjack table. Newer blackjack players often find it difficult to memorize the charts. The easiest way to commit the charts to memory is to look for logical patterns in the charts that help you understand why each play is made.

When you first begin playing or if you are having trouble memorizing the strategy charts, you might consider getting a blackjack strategy card. These are convenient laminated cards, about the size of a credit card, which have the basic strategy charts on them. Most casinos will even allow you to use the cards at the table while playing. For more information, visit our blackjack strategy card page.

Winning with Basic Strategy

There is one last thing to keep in mind when it comes to blackjack basic strategy – it’s not a guaranteed winning system. There are some players who will try to discredit basic strategy because they tried using it once or twice and ended up with a losing night. Basic strategy just shows the proper mathematical decision, for everyblackjack scenario. This does not guarantee that you will always win when using it. It’s simply the foundation for all other blackjack strategies and is a must learn for any serious player.

Winter Clothing

Winter Clothing

Clothes don’t provide heat. The purpose of wearing clothing is to reduce heat loss and retain and maintain your warmth. Think about how you dress: small details make a big difference when the weather is harsh and your energy level is dropping. Clothes should insulate and support the body’s temperature equilibrium. At the same time that our clothing should help to retain heat that the body produces, it should also transport excess moisture and heat away from the skin.

Breathability and permeability (a.k.a. wind resistance) aren’t the same thing. Breathability represents how much perspiration vapor can escape through a fabric from the inside out, whereas permeability measures how easily wind passes from the outside in. These are different properties, it’s possible for a garment to be very air permeable but not very breathable—air could pass right through, while sweat could still bead up inside, leaving you feeling damp and cooled. The opposite is also possible—for example, a WINDSTOPPER® jacket blocks wind completely (zero air permeability) but will still let perspiration vapor pass through at a decent rate.

Retain heat, but let moisture out. The purpose of clothing is to retain heat that the body produces. The body puts off heat all the time, for better or for worse. This is a natural process, and we lose heat in five ways.

Have you heard the phrase “cotton kills”? Cotton is an extremely absorbent fabric. It holds water – like rain or melted snow or sweat – very well for a long period. And the problem is when you work up a sweat, cotton traps it close to your body. Add a little wind and evaporative cooling will happen. It can chill you very quickly to the point you are uncomfortable or potentially hypothermic. Cotton loses its insulating qualities when it gets wet, whether from rain or sweat and it takes a long time to dry. Wool or synthetic materials are much better suited to cold weather conditions.

Clothing Tips:

  • Protect against heat loss through your head by wearing a hat, balaclava, etc. One saying goes, “If your feet are cold, put on a hat.” A balaclava helps protect your face and neck from cold and wind.
  • Be sure to carry plenty of dry socks, but do not wear too many pairs of socks at one time. If the blood flow to your feet becomes constricted, your feet will get cold regardless of how many socks you have on. Tightening your boot laces too tight will constrict the blood flow as well. Similarly, make sure your gloves, especially liners, are not too tight on your hands. If they are too tight, they can constrict the blood flow and keep your hands from warming up.
  • Gaiters will keep snow, rain, etc out of your boots and therefore help keep your feet drier and warmer. Gaiters also add another layer of material around your lower legs to help keep them warm.
  • Attach “dummy cords”, or security cords to your mittens to prevent losing them in windy or snowy conditions. Carry extra gloves or liners to change into if your first pair gets wet. Gloves can be dried out overnight in your sleeping bag.

In 2001, the U.S. government started using a more precise way to measure wind chill by testing how quickly people’s skin froze. Twelve volunteers were placed in a chilled wind tunnel. Equipment was stuck to their faces to measure the heat flow from their cheeks, forehead, nose and chin while they walked three miles per hour on a treadmill. One of the things they learned was how quickly frostbite develops on exposed skin. The information collected from the volunteers helped scientists come up with the complicated formula involving wind speed and air temperature to compute wind chill. For example, if the temperature is zero degrees Fahrenheit and the wind is blowing at 15 miles per hour, the wind chill is calculated at 19 degrees below zero. At that wind chill temperature, exposed skin can freeze in 30 minutes.

Windchill-Chart

Windchill temperature is only defined for temperatures at or below 50 degrees F and wind speeds above 3 mph. Bright sunshine may increase the wind chill temperature by 10 to 18 degrees F. The new Wind Chill Table index:

  • Calculates wind speed at an average height of five feet (typical height of an adult human face) based on readings from the national standard height of 33 feet (typical height of an anemometer)
  • Is based on a human face model
  • Incorporates modern heat transfer theory (heat loss from the body to its surroundings, during cold and breezy/windy days)
  • Lowers the calm wind threshold to 3 mph
  • Uses a consistent standard for skin tissue resistance
  • Assumes no impact from the sun (i.e.,clear night sky)

For those wishing a more precise calculation than that provided by the table the NOAA website provides a Wind Chill Calculator where you can enter your exact temperature and wind speed to determine the precise wind chill factor.

Winter Camping Tips

Winter Camping Tips

When camping in winter, the most important consideration you have is keeping warm- which is a two-fold process: keeping the heat in, and keeping the cold out.

The most effective way to achieve this is by dressing in layers. This gives you the freedom to adjust your attire in order to help regulate your body temperature. It’s more important to dress in layers in the outdoors as you are constantly exposed to the elements and don’t have your usual access to a full wardrobe.

Three layers is a good place to start, consisting of: A liner layer, an insulation layer and an outer layer, which should generally be wind and waterproof. If you get these three layers right you will be much better equipped for the cold.

In terms of winter dressing, another essential is to avoid cotton at all costs. Great for the summer as a lightweight and breathable material, however it is not nearly as good in winter. Unfortunately cotton loses all insulation when it gets wet, as well as taking an extraordinarily long time to dry, leaving you wet, cold and uncomfortable. Your best bet in a winter camping situation is to swap out cotton for synthetics.

Cold, wet and icy feet generally mean you will be freezing and miserable the whole day, not to mention uncomfortable. The best way to avoid this is to ensure that the outer layer of your boots are waterproof either because they are plastic, or because you have taken the time to oil leather boots properly.

Believe it or not, one of the easiest ways to lose body heat is through your head. It is therefore necessary to consider wearing some kind of protective layer on your head to avoid losing valuable heat. A balaclava is a good option as it will also cover your face and neck at the same time if it is very cold.

A common mistake that campers make is to try and wear additional socks in order to keep their feet warm. This is dangerous because too many pairs of socks can constrict circulation and actually inhibit your feet from warming up. This said however, always pack a few extra pairs of socks- wet socks can really make a winter camp uncomfortable and cold, so make sure you have some dry supplies in case your socks do get wet.

Gaiters are a worthwhile consideration if you are planning a winter camping or hiking trip. They will make a massive contribution in keeping your feet dry and therefore warm as well.

So those are a few tips in order to remain warm, dry and comfortable during your next winter camping experience. It’s all about planning ahead and making sure you are wearing appropriate outdoor clothing during your trip.

SAFETY AND HEALTH TIPS

SAFETY AND HEALTH TIPS

To make your trip more adventurous and safe, do follow certain safety guidelines and tips mentioned below:- Before heading for your adventure trekking trip, do study weather forecast of that …


To make your trip more adventurous and safe, do follow certain safety guidelines and tips mentioned below:-

  1. Before heading for your adventure trekking trip, do study weather forecast of that area. Avoid trekking during bad weather or adverse climatic situations.
  2. Newbies should always carry a raincoat or windsheeter with them. Climate can change frequently in several trekking points.
  3. Do carry multi-pocket carry bag engrafted with zipper closure and cushioned shoulder straps, especially for trekking trips. The bag should be spacious enough to carry all the important trekking essentials while trekking.
  4. Must keep a lighter, Swiss army knife, space blanket, water bottle and winter attire in your carry bag or pocket before heading for trekking.
  5. To prevent insect bite, do wear full sleeves shirts and full pants.
  6. Do carry sleeping bag and trekking rope of about 50 meters of length with you.
  7. A direction compass and topographical map is must while trekking in mountains.
  8. An ice cutting axe should always be carried if heading into snowy terrain.

Accessories add grace to your personality. So during travel keep such accessories which are easy to carry and may add grace to your overall look.

  1. While planning your trekking trip, it is preferable to have a medical fitness check up done. It is most essential to be fit and fine before heading for trekking. You may also prefer to have medical precautions against diseases like malaria, cholera, tetanus, typhoid and hepatitis. Do arrange and carry medicines related to ailments from which you are previously suffering.
  2. If suffering from any kind of ailment, do carry proper prescribed medicines to prevent serious health problem including heatstroke, sever headache, cough, dehydration and hypothermia.
  3. Always wear proper trekking shoes while trekking. Uncomfortable pair of shoes can harshly hurt your feet and can lead to serious foot injuries while trekking. Therefore do spend some time to arrange proper and comfortable trekking shoes before heading for trekking tour.
  4. Choose those trekking shoes that are a half-size bigger than your regular shoes to allow space for some swelling caused while trekking and to hold heavier trekking socks.
  5. Do carry food items which carry larger amount of carbohydrates.
  6. Always take important medicine and first aid box with you.
  7. Do always cover your neck area, particularly in frequently changing weather .It can lead to serious neck problems and pains if left uncovered.
  8. Do wear thick woolen socks or stockings while trekking. Synthetic blended socks can be used for trekking purpose, as these socks are specially designed to preclude feet moisture.

Proper health and fitness is must for every trekker. Therefore always try to be in proper and fine state of health.

Clothing Techniques for winter camp.

Clothing Techniques for winter camp.

Clothing Techniques: When you first get up in the morning (and at the end of the day in camp), your activity level will be low as will be the temperature. …


Clothing Techniques:

  1. When you first get up in the morning (and at the end of the day in camp), your activity level will be low as will be the temperature. You will need to have many, if not all, of your layers on at this point until breakfast is over and you have started to become active.
  2. When you get ready to be active, you will need to take off layers since you will begin generating heat. A good rule of thumb is to strip down until you feel just cool, not chilled just before activity. Failure to do this will mean overheating, sweating, losing heat and you will have to stop in 10 minutes down the trail anyway to take layers off. Open or closing zippers, rolling sleeves up or down, taking a hat off or putting one on will all help with temperature regulation.
  3. If you stop for more that a few minutes, you will need to put on another layer to keep from getting chilled. Keep a layer close at hand.
  4. Whenever you get covered with snow, either from a fall or from dislodged snow from a tree, it is essential to brush yourself off to keep your clothing free of snow. Failure to do this often results in the snow melting into your clothing and refreezing as ice.
  5. At the end of the day, as activity decreases and temperature drops, you will need to add layers. Once you start to cool down it takes a lot of the body’s resources (calories) to heat up again so layer up ASAP before you get chilled. It may be good to put on more that you think you need; it will only get colder. If you are too warm, you can open up layers and ventilate to reach the proper temperature.

Ski jumping

Ski jumping

The event developed in the late nineteenth century Norway. The event has developed with the passing time since its advent as a sport. The aim of ski jumping is to …


The event developed in the late nineteenth century Norway. The event has developed with the passing time since its advent as a sport. The aim of ski jumping is to jump as far as possible and then to ski down a hill-slope. The skiers use long, wide skis during this event. Various jumping techniques are also acquired by the skiers to travel more distance than others. Generally ski jumping is held on natural snow. However, the event can also be staged on artificial surfaces. The sport is governed by the Federation Internationale de Ski or the FIS at the international level.

Ski Jumping in the Winter Games: Ski jumping was included in the Olympic schedule at the 1924 Chamonix Winter Games. Men’s individual large hill was the only event contested at the 1924 Games.

Winter Camping Tours

Winter Camping Tours

Camping refers to an outdoor leisure activity i.e. staying outdoors and enjoying. The people who participate in such activities are called campers. The campers may camp near to home or they may travel to far off places and camp at a particular place. Generally the camping sites are situated far away from human civilization and much closer to the gifts of Mother Nature.

The campers construct a temporary shelter known as tent in which they reside during the night. In some instances, people do not construct such tent and sleep openly in their sleeping bags. Camping is mostly reckoned to be the activity of the young & the strong but there are some types of camping, which can be undertaken by old people too. Some of the most common type of camping’s are family camping, wild camping, winter camping and many more. Let’s throw some more light on the term winter camping.

Winter camping is one of the toughest types of camping but at the same time it is the most adventurous and exciting one. Winter camping is only meant for young people, who are full of adventures and have a strong determination. Winter camping is much enjoyable and comfortable as compared to the summer camping. Winter camping can be done anywhere outdoors, but it is mainly linked with camping on high altitudes. Camping on high altitudes is not an easy task and thus requires a lot of planning & preparation.

Camping gears
Before going on any such winter camp, always prepare beforehand. The most important thing is the tent as one has to spend most of the time within it. The tent should be large enough to hold an individual and should be strong enough so as to bear the winter winds, which blow very strongly. The tents should be made of nylon and the frame should be of aluminum. One should also carry an air mattress, which is self-inflating.

Clothing
One should be fully clothed so as to avoid the rough winter condition. One should always dress in layers as it maintains the body temperature and moisture. The three type layering is the most preferred by people, while going on winter camping tours.

    • Hat-

A wool hat is a must, while going on a winter camping tour. This hat prevents the loose of heat from the head.

    • Trousers-

One should wear a Snowmobile mitten and on top of it wear a woolen pant and on that an air-proof pants.

    • Long hand cuffs-

This keeps the hands much warmer as compared to gloves.

  • Boots-

One should go for a snow boots, which are very warm.